재정적자 급증에 OECD가 지난해 GDP대비 –3% 예상치와 달리 통합재정은 –3.7%가 됐고, 실질재정인 관리재정의 적자는 2배인 –5.9%로 최악이 됐다.
국가채무가 지난해 17%(123조7천억원) 급증 846조5천억이 된 것에 대해, 정부는 지난 10년 평균치를 앞세워 “OECD 10년치 평균해 정부부채 증가율 18.8%이나 한국 10.8%라서 국가부채는 OECD평균의 절반”이라며 “양호하다”고 5일 밝혔다.
국무회의에서 6일 의결한 2020년도 재정은 국가채무(D1)가 846조9천억원으로 전년비 123조7천억원(17.1%) 증가했고, 국가부채 1985조3천억원에 전년(1743조7천억원)보다 241조6천억원(13.9%) 증가의 역대 최대이다.
정부는 5일 기자 설명회에서 “IMF가 선진국 재정적자가 GDP대비 13.3%이나 한국 3.2%로 양호”라며, 부채증가 속도에 대해 “2020년 정부부채 6.2%p 증가, 세계 14.2%p, 선진국 17.9%p 증가”라서 ‘한국 양호’라고 밝혔다.
1년간 14%(241조6천억원) 증가해 1985조3천억원이 된 국가부채는 공무원·군인 연금부채를 합친 것이고, 정부의 국가채무는 17% 증가에 846조9천억원이고 내년은 965조9천억원이 되며 연속 10% 이상 증가이다.
OECD는 한국 재정적자에 대해 “재정수지가 2019년 GDP의 0.9% 흑자에서 2020년 GDP의 3% 적자로 돌아설 것”이라며 “정부 부채는 2023년 GDP의 48% 이상으로 상승한 뒤 2024년 소폭 감소했다가 이후부터 다시 증가세 보일 것”으로 지난해 6월 한국경제 보고서에서 밝혔다.
정부 실질재정인 관리재정 적자가 지난해 112조원으로 전년보다 57조5천억원 증가해 2011년 이후 최대 적자이고, GDP대비 전년보다 3.0%p 악화돼 –5.8%로 역대 최악이다.
통합재정(총수입-총지출)은 전년보다 59조2천억원 급증 71조2천억원 적자이며, GDP대비 -3.7%로 전년(-0.6%)보다 3.1%p 악화이다.
이지원 기재부 재정건전성과장은 "우리나라 국가부채는 아직 경제협력개발기구(OECD) 평균 절반에 못미친다"면서 "부채 증가 속도로 봤을 때도 굉장히 양호한 수준으로, 2009~2019년 OECD 평균 일반정부 부채 증가율은 18.8%, 한국은 10.8%"라고 5일 밝혔다.
2017년 7월 OECD 경제전망(Economic Outlook)에서 2016년 GDP대비 국가부채비율 한국(44.8%) 일본(230%) 미국(113.6%), 프랑스(120.8%), 독일(78.7%)로 나왔으나, 기재부 결산자료(4월)는 국가부채비율 37.9%로 6.9%p(911억달러) 낮춰 발표했다.
격차에 대해 당시 ‘서울경제’는 “기재부가 GDP대비 국가부채비율을 국제기준인 일반정부부채(D2) 대신 국가채무(D1)를 썼다”며, D1은 중앙정부와 지방정부 부채 D1에서 비영리공공기관 부채 포함 일반정부부채 D2가 국가 간 부채 비교의 기준이라고 16일 밝혔다.
OECD 2017년 기준으로 2016년 국가부채가 GDP대비 44.8%이고, 부채비율상승(1.1%)은 일본(4.0%) 미국(2.5%) 영국(1.5%)보다 낮으나 독일(-3.6%), 프랑스(0.4%)보다 높게 상승세였다.firstname.lastname@example.org
*아래는 위 기사를 구글 번역기로 번역한 영문 기사의 [전문]이다. [Below is the [full text] of an English article translated from the above article with Google Translate.]
State debt surged by 17%, fiscal deficit “worst” Government “good for 10 years”
-by Kim Jong-chan, political economy reporter
Contrary to last year's estimate of -3% of GDP by the OECD due to the rapid increase in fiscal deficit, the combined fiscal budget was -3.7%, and the real fiscal deficit was doubled to -5.9%, which was the worst.
As the national debt surged 17% (123.7 trillion won) last year to 846 trillion won, the government put the average of the past 10 years ahead, saying, “The increase rate of government debt is 18.8% on average for 10 years in OECD, but Korea is 10.8%, so the national debt is OECD. It was half of the average,” he said on the 5th, saying, “It is good.
For fiscal 2020, which was decided at the State Council on the 6th, the national debt (D1) increased to 846 trillion and 9 trillion won, an increase of 123 trillion won (17.1%) from the previous year, and the national debt was 1985 trillion and 300 billion won, compared to the previous year (1743 trillion won). This is a record-high increase of 600 billion won (13.9%).
At a press conference on the 5th, the government said, “IMF has a fiscal deficit of 13.3% of GDP in developed countries, but 3.2% of Korea is good.” Regarding the rate of debt growth, “government debt increased by 6.2%p in 2020, world 14.2%p, developed countries 17.9%p. Increased”, so he said, “Korea is good.”
National debt increased by 14% (241 trillion won) over one year to 1985 trillion won, combined with pension liabilities for civil servants and military personnel, and the government's national debt increased by 17% to 846 trillion won and 965 trillion won next year. And it is an increase of 10% or more in a row.
The OECD said about the Korean fiscal deficit, saying, “The fiscal balance will turn from a surplus of 0.9% of GDP in 2019 to a deficit of 3% of GDP in 2020.” “Government debt rose to more than 48% of GDP in 2023 and then decreased slightly in 2024. It is expected to increase again from afterwards,” he said in the Korea Economic Daily Report in June of last year.
The government's real fiscal management fiscal deficit was 112 trillion won last year, an increase of 57 trillion won from the previous year, the largest since 2011, and is the worst in history at -5.8%, which is 3.0%p worse than the previous year compared to GDP.
Integrated fiscal (total income-total expenditure) surged 592 trillion won from the previous year, with a deficit of 71.2 trillion won, which is -3.7% of GDP, which is 3.1%p worse than the previous year (-0.6%).
"Korea's national debt is still less than half the average of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)," said Lee Ji-won, head of the Ministry of Finance and Economy, and said, "It is very good even at the rate of debt growth. It said on the 5th, "18.8% for silver and 10.8% for Korea."
In July 2017, the OECD Economic Outlook showed that the ratio of national debt to GDP in 2016 was Korea (44.8%) Japan (230%), the United States (113.6%), France (120.8%), and Germany (78.7%). The financial statements of the Ministry of Equipment (April) were released by lowering 6.9%p ($91.1 billion) to 37.9% of the national debt ratio.
Regarding the gap, the'Seoul Economy' at the time said, "The Ministry of Finance used the national debt (D1) instead of the general government debt (D2), which is an international standard, for the ratio of national debt to GDP." It was announced on the 16th that the general government debt D2, including institutional debt, is the standard for comparing debt between countries.
As of OECD 2017, the national debt of 2016 was 44.8% of GDP, and the increase in debt ratio (1.1%) was lower than that of Japan (4.0%) the United States (2.5%) and the United Kingdom (1.5%), but Germany (-3.6%) and France ( It was higher than 0.4%).
10-year average, relative to GDP, OECD report, national debt, equipment, pension debt, fiscal deficit, government debt